Nazal Ibne Sabrah (Rahmatullahi Alaiyhi) narrates: Once Ali رضي الله عنه was once asked, “O Ameerul Mu’mineen! [O the Leader of the Believers!) There are some people here who say : “Allah Taala doesn’t know what will happen before an event occurs.”
Ali رضي الله عنه said, “They may lose their mother (An expression for a reprimand in Arabic)! From where have they learned this?”
They replied to Ali رضي الله عنه : It is a Verse of Quran from where they have concluded so: “And We will certainly test you until We know those of you who carry out Jihad (struggle in Allah’s way) and observe patience, and until We check the reports about you.” Sura Muhammad: 31
Ali رضي الله عنه said, “The ignorant have gone astrayed!” Then he got upon the pulpit of the Masjid (mosque) and after Praising Allah Taala and Reciting Durood he said, “Attain Divine Knowledge (Ilm); practice it and teach it to others. If someone finds any words in Allah Taala’s Book (The Quran) difficult, he may ask me (as I am still among you). Such a report has reached me: By the Verse of the Holy Quran “And We will certainly test you until We know those….” some ignorant people have inferred that Allah Taala doesn’t know what will happen before its occurrence (this meaning is completely wrong). (Ali رضي الله عنه continues:) Actually in the verse “until We know those” means: We would explicitly see those who have been predestined for Jihad (striving on the Road of Allah Taala) and Sabr (Steadfastness on the Path of Allah Taala with forbearance) had accomplished so in the world.”
Ref: Hayatus Sahabah (RA) by Shaikh Yusuf (Rahimahullah)
The faith on Taqdeer – is a fundemental belief in Islam. The ones who argue this on the basis of logic or any other ways, they somehow deny the Might and Eternal Knowledge of Allah Taala. Certainly, Allah Taala possesses All Knowledge – His Wisdom, Knowledge and Understanding are completely beyond our limit and comprehension.
A Believer must be very cautious to preserve Iman. He should simply hold firm faith upon Taqdeer. If someone makes comments on it not knowing [like many do today] such as: why would I blindly believe(?) and why is Allah Taala taking a test if He knows everything(?) – these arise due to lack of proper knowledge of divine revelation. However, a believer must refrain from such arguments; it is safe. This is what our prophet, beloved Rasulullah ﷺ advised his Ummah.
Yes if barely necessary, there are the Ulama (pious scholars) present among us. They are wise and knowledgeable to correct these. If a believer has some doubt or any confusion regarding any matter, s/he must ask a qualified Muslim scholar regarding it and remove any confusion or false notion. It is indeed surprising and shocking that today people derive a lot of knowledge from assumptions and implications. They firmly hold those and do not inquire further. This is a grave step to learning and threatens our faith.
Especially bookish knowledge has taken many people astray at this age; people just read something somewhere and derive various thoughts and develop wrongful beliefs.
Look closely into the incident described above, at the age of Ali رضي الله عنه , reading a verse of the Holy Quran some people have derived wrong meaning. They were Arabs; they knew Arabic much better than us. It was their mother-tongue. Indeed, to comprehend the Quran, knowledge of general Arabic language is just a primary step. The general Arabic language alone is NEVER sufficient to comprehend the Quran and develop the right understanding. At our age, we read translations of the divine book and become satisfied. This is absolute foolishness. May Allah Taala provide us the ability to surrender purely to Allah!