Extracted from a Bayan of Harat Abrarul Haq (R), Last Khalifa of Hazrat Ashraf Ali Thanvi (R)
Shariah consists of both Inward and Outward deeds To get tranquility, the major factor is to pay attention toward Allah Tala. We should completely be connected to Allah Tala. We have to adhere to Shariah (Rulings of Islam) both inwardly and outwardly. This would automatically make our inward and outward attentive toward Allah Tala. Because the Commands of Shariah are of two types. Some are related to the outward situations of human beings and some the related to inward. Therefore there are two types of Commands/Rulings: i. The Zahiri (Outward) Rulings: Salat, Fasting, Hajj, Zakat etc. ii. The Batini (Inward) Rulings: Sabr, Shukr, Contentment, Zuhd etc. Without abiding by both types of rulings, getting peace in life is impossible. In Shariah, both the outward and inward deeds are objective. One is never sufficient. Both are required and essential. To form the outward according to Shariah is important and to form the inward according to Shariah is similarly important. The Quran states (Meaning): “Abandon (both) the inward and outward sins” Sura An-am: 121 This Verse clarifies our statement. The Relation between Inward (Zahir) and Outward (Batin) Our inward and outward has such a deep relation that we cannot isolate one from another. One has influence on another. For example, a man takes bath; get purified outwardly; wears neat and clean clothes; he then goes outside; while walking on the road some ink fall over his clothes from a child’s pen! What will be the condition of the mind of the man? The ink has fallen over his clothes; however, his hearts get affected with despair. The effect of clothes reached his heart. If that ink fell over his face, what would have happened? The result of outward affects the inward. For lacking in Salat, Fasting or incorrect Social Behavior or Transactions put negative remarks on the heart. For this reason, while saying Prayers in Jamaat, it is said to maintain lines properly. Hazrat Rasulullah ﷺ said, “You must straightly align (in the lines of Jamaat); do not stand crookedly; Or your hearts will disconnect and scatter” Aligning in Jamaat is an outward deed. However, it influences the inward; for this reason, honesty and unity or disloyalty and discord is created. In Hadith it is mentioned, when a Muslim commits sin there is reaction in the heart: A black stain is created on his heart. By Tawba and Istegfar it is cleansed. However, if one continues to accomplish sins the stain blackens and the heart becomes fully dark. (Musnade Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibne Mazah) Inward also influences the Outward Likewise the outward also is influenced by the inward. For instance, a man’s face seems very gloomy; his whole body has spread with skin diseases. Will it be difficult to conclude by his outward condition that his blood had become impure, i.e. he is inwardly affected? Therefore, it can be deduced that our inward influences our outward. Even if internal deeds, such as: safeguarding others’ possession, sincerity etc are neglected, the negative influence falls on social behavior and transactions too. For this reason, Hadith has mentioned, In human being there is a lump of flesh, if that is right the whole body is set right; and if that is spoiled, the whole body spoils. And that is the ‘Qalb’ – Heart. (Bukhari & Muslim) Therefore our major part is the Heart; if it is right all works right. The Rectification of inward and its Result I now remember an incident which I’d mention; see what our state is, and was the state of our Predecessors. After Hazrat Umar (R) was stabbed by Abu Lulu, he could guess that his life has come to an end. He then proposed the names of Six Sahabas (R) for any one to become the next Khalifa. Those Sahabas were: Hazrat Uthman (R), Hazrat Ali (R), Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R), Hazrat Talha bin Ubaiydullah (R), Hazrat Zubaiyr bin Awam (R) and Hazrat Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas (R). Hazrat Umar proposed their names saying, these are those personalities, on whom Rasulullah ﷺ was (specially) pleased during his departure from this world. Hazrat Umar (R) also mentioned, among these six, whoever would gain the support of most may be elected the Khalifa; and this decision must be taken within 03 days. Till then Hazrat Shuaiyb bin Sinan Rumi (R) would lead the prayer. In the meantime Hazrat Umar (R) passed away; after his burial Hazrat Mikdad bin Aswad (R) gathered all in his house (for consultation and deciding who the next Khalifa would be). For consecutive 2 days the discussion went on, without any result. Only one day was then left to come into a decision according Hazrat Umar (R)’s order. Finally Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R) proposed that 3 people may be given the all the rights. Consequently, Hazrat Zubaiyr bin Awam (R) handed over his right to Hazrat Ali (R), Hazrat Talha bin Ubaiydullah (R) handed over his right to Hazrat Uthman (R), Hazrat Sa’ad bin Abi Waqqas (R) handed over his right to Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R). Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R) was a very rich man; when he died, he left behind a huge amount of money. We cannot imagine that today. He was indeed a highly dignified Sahabi; well suited for the Khilafat. About such people the Quran has stated: These are such (beloved) men (of Allah Tala), whom the business, buying/selling doesn’t keep negligent in the Remembrance of Allah Tala, establishing Prayers and donating Zakat. Their state is that, they fear a Day – when the hearts and sights will become upside down. Sura Noor: 37 However, now the electing of Khalifa is limited in 3. Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R) said, “I do not hold the courage to shed this responsibility.” He moreover, said, “I would suggest one among you to become the Khalifa, the other should spontaneously accept it.” Both Hazrat Uthman (R) and Hazrat Ali (R) accepted what Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R) proposed. Then Hazrat Abdur Rahman bin Auwf (R) mentioned the name of Hazrat Uthman (R); all accepted it. Hazrat Uthman (R) became the Khalifa. What a complex issue, but solved so easily; what was the reason for it? The reason only that they had the love of Deen in their hearts and not of Dunya (the world). Just as the Hadith has mentioned: In human being there is a lump of flesh, if that is right the whole body is set right; and if that is spoiled, the whole body spoils. And that is the ‘Qalb’ – Heart. The outward of man is the mirror of inward condition (Inshallah to be continued).